Article 14
. Information to be provided where personal data have not been obtained from the data subject

Official
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Guidelines
& Caselaw
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EU Regulation
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Nat. Regulation

There is no recital in the Regulation related to article 14.

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(39) Whereas certain processing operations involve data which the controller has not collected directly from the data subject; whereas, furthermore, data can be legitimately disclosed to a third party, even if the disclosure was not anticipated at the time the data were collected from the data subject; whereas, in all these cases, the data subject should be informed when the data are recorded or at the latest when the data are first disclosed to a third party;

(40) Whereas, however, it is not necessary to impose this obligation of the data subject already has the information; whereas, moreover, there will be no such obligation if the recording or disclosure are expressly provided for by law or if the provision of information to the data subject proves impossible or would involve disproportionate efforts, which could be the case where processing is for historical, statistical or scientific purposes; whereas, in this regard, the number of data subjects, the age of the data, and any compensatory measures adopted may be taken into consideration;

The GDPR

In its Article 14, the Regulation reinforces the obligations to provide information when the data were not collected from the data subject, while extending the general exceptions.

The obligatory elements of information already presented in the Directive are diversified: the information given should serve to identify the possible delegate to the data protection and the legal basis and indicate the purpose of processing or the legitimate interests on which the controller is processing data. Other mandatory information includes the will to make a transfer of data to a recipient in a third country or an international organization, the lack of decision on adequacy of the level of protection or, if appropriate, the appropriate or adequate safeguards provided and the ways to obtain a copy. The obligation to notify the other elements of information is necessary to ensure "fair and transparent processing" which should change nothing in substance.

On the other hand, the elements of information are more numerous.

Now it also includes in particular the period of data storage, or at least the elements allowing for determining it, the identification of the legitimate interests in case of lawfulness based on a balance of interests, rights and freedoms (Art. 6 (1), f) of the Regulation), the existence of all the rights recognized to a person (including for example the right to data portability or withdrawal of consent), and the right to lodge a complaint with a supervisory authority. And finally, the sources that the data come from, including the sources that are publicly available are covered.

Where appropriate, the existence of any automated decision-making including profiling under Articles 22 (1) and (4) as well as significant information of the underlying logic and consequences of the processing for the data subject shall also be notified.

The Regulation also specifies that the controller must provide this information to the data subject EITHER within a reasonable time not exceeding one month after the collection OR, if it is envisaged to provide the information to another person or to use the data for communication to the data subject, when the information is communicated for the first time at the latest.

Where appropriate, the changes of the purposes for processing data against the initial purpose must also be notified which means, if appropriate, new information on all of the above elements.

Exceptions are provided for. The information must not be provided if the data subject already has the information, if proven to be impossible or would require disproportionate efforts. There are clarifications concerning processing for archiving purposes in the public interest as well as for scientific purposes, historical or statistical research.

Another exception is provided in the case of obtaining or communicating the information if subject to specific provisions in EU law or national law or if the data must remain confidential, subject to an obligation of professional secrecy in accordance with the EU law  or the law of a Member State.

The Directive

Articles 10 and 11 of the Directive provided for an obligation to notify the data subject that was differently implemented depending on whether the data were collected directly from the data subject or from a third party.

Potential issues

The difficulty results not so much from the large amount of information which should be taken into account, but from the uncertainty about their transmission to the data subject, as the great majority of these is conditioned by the need for "fair and transparent” processing. It is hard to say if, being in doubt, the controllers would opt for transparency or not. In particular if the content of some of the information could create difficulties (identification of legitimate interests, for example).

Group 29

Guidelines on Automated individual decision-making and Profiling for the purposes of Regulation 2016/679 (6 February 2018)

(Endorsed by the EDPB)

The General Data Protection Regulation (the GDPR), specifically addresses profiling and automated individual decision-making, including profiling.

Profiling and automated decision-making are used in an increasing number of sectors, both private and public. Banking and finance, healthcare, taxation, insurance, marketing and advertising are just a few examples of the fields where profiling is being carried out more regularly to aid decision-making.

Advances in technology and the capabilities of big data analytics, artificial intelligence and machine learning have made it easier to create profiles and make automated decisions with the potential to significantly impact individuals’ rights and freedoms.

The widespread availability of personal data on the internet and from Internet of Things (IoT) devices, and the ability to find correlations and create links, can allow aspects of an individual’s personality or behaviour, interests and habits to be determined, analysed and predicted.

Profiling and automated decision-making can be useful for individuals and organisations, delivering benefits such as:

  • increased efficiencies; and
  • resource savings.

They have many commercial applications, for example, they can be used to better segment markets and tailor services and products to align with individual needs. Medicine, education, healthcare and transportation can also all benefit from these processes.

However, profiling and automated decision-making can pose significant risks for individuals’ rights and freedoms which require appropriate safeguards.

These processes can be opaque. Individuals might not know that they are being profiled or understand what is involved.

Profiling can perpetuate existing stereotypes and social segregation. It can also lock a person into a specific category and restrict them to their suggested preferences. This can undermine their freedom to choose, for example, certain products or services such as books, music or newsfeeds. In some cases, profiling can lead to inaccurate predictions. In other cases it can lead to denial of services and goods and unjustified discrimination.

The GDPR introduces new provisions to address the risks arising from profiling and automated decision-making, notably, but not limited to, privacy. The purpose of these guidelines is to clarify those provisions.

This document covers:

  • Definitions of profiling and automated decision-making and the GDPR approach to these in general – Chapter II
  • General provisions on profiling and automated decision-making – Chapter III
  • Specific provisions on solely automated decision-making defined in Article 22 - Chapter IV
  • Children and profiling – Chapter V
  • Data protection impact assessments and data protection officers– Chapter VI

The Annexes provide best practice recommendations, building on the experience gained in EU Member States.

The Article 29 Data Protection Working Party (WP29) will monitor the implementation of these guidelines and may complement them with further details as appropriate.

Link

Guidelines on transparency under Regulation 2016/679 (11 April 2018)

(Endorsed by the EDPB)

These guidelines provide practical guidance and interpretative assistance from the Article 29 Working Party (WP29) on the new obligation of transparency concerning the processing of personal data under the General Data Protection Regulation1 (the “GDPR”). Transparency is an overarching obligation under the GDPR applying to three central areas: (1) the provision of information to data subjects related to fair processing; (2) how data controllers communicate with data subjects in relation to their rights under the GDPR; and (3) how data controllers facilitate the exercise by data subjects of their rights. Insofar as compliance with transparency is required in relation to data processing under Directive (EU) 2016/680, these guidelines also apply to the interpretation of that principle. These guidelines are, like all WP29 guidelines, intended to be generally applicable and relevant to controllers irrespective of the sectoral, industry or regulatory specifications particular to any given data controller. As such, these guidelines cannot address the nuances and many variables which may arise in the context of the transparency obligations of a specific sector, industry or regulated area. However, these guidelines are intended to enable controllers to understand, at a high level, WP29’s interpretation of what the transparency obligations entail in practice and to indicate the approach which WP29 considers controllers should take to being transparent while embedding fairness and accountability into their transparency measures.

Transparency is a long established feature of the law of the EU. It is about engendering trust in the processes which affect the citizen by enabling them to understand, and if necessary, challenge those processes. It is also an expression of the principle of fairness in relation to the processing of personal data expressed in Article 8 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Under the GDPR (Article 5(1)(a)), in addition to the requirements that data must be processed lawfully and fairly, transparency is now included as a fundamental aspect of these principles. Transparency is intrinsically linked to fairness and the new principle of accountability under the GDPR. It also follows from Article 5.2 that the controller must always be able to demonstrate that personal data are processed in a transparent manner in relation to the data subject. Connected to this, the accountability principle requires transparency of processing operations in order that data controllers are able to demonstrate compliance with their obligations under the GDPR.

In accordance with Recital 171 of the GDPR, where processing is already under way prior to 25 May 2018, a data controller should ensure that it is compliant with its transparency obligations as of 25 May 2018 (along with all other obligations under the GDPR). This means that prior to 25 May 2018, data controllers should revisit all information provided to data subjects on processing of their personal data (for example in privacy statements/ notices etc.) to ensure that they adhere to the requirements in relation to transparency which are discussed in these guidelines. Where changes or additions are made to such information, controllers should make it clear to data subjects that these changes have been effected in order to comply with the GDPR. WP29 recommends that such changes or additions be actively brought to the attention of data subjects but at a minimum controllers should make this information publically available (e.g. on their website). However, if the changes or additions are material or substantive, then in line with paragraphs 29 to 32 below, such changes should be actively brought to the attention of the data subject.

Transparency, when adhered to by data controllers, empowers data subjects to hold data controllers and processors accountable and to exercise control over their personal data by, for example, providing or withdrawing informed consent and actioning their data subject rights. The concept of transparency in the GDPR is user-centric rather than legalistic and is realised by way of specific practical requirements on data controllers and processors in a number of articles. The practical (information) requirements are outlined in Articles 12 - 14 of the GDPR. However, the quality, accessibility and comprehensibility of the information is as important as the actual content of the transparency information, which must be provided to data subjects.

The transparency requirements in the GDPR apply irrespective of the legal basis for processing and throughout the life cycle of processing. This is clear from Article 12 which provides that transparency applies at the following stages of the data processing cycle:

  • before or at the start of the data processing cycle, i.e. when the personal data is being collected either from the data subject or otherwise obtained;
  • throughout the whole processing period, i.e. when communicating with data subjects about their rights; and
  • at specific points while processing is ongoing, for example when data breaches occur or in the case of material changes to the processing.

Link

CJEU caselaw

C-201/14 (1 October 2015)

Articles 10, 11 and 13 of Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995, on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, must be interpreted as precluding national measures, such as those at issue in the main proceedings, which allow a public administrative body of a Member State to transfer personal data to another public administrative body and their subsequent processing, without the data subjects having been informed of that transfer or processing.

Opinion of Advocate general 

Judgment of the Court

Regulation
1e 2e

Art. 14

1.   Where personal data have not been obtained from the data subject, the controller shall provide the data subject with the following information:

(a) the identity and the contact details of the controller and, where applicable, of the controller's representative;

(b) the contact details of the data protection officer, where applicable;

(c) the purposes of the processing for which the personal data are intended as well as the legal basis for the processing;

(d) the categories of personal data concerned;

(e) the recipients or categories of recipients of the personal data, if any;

(f) where applicable, that the controller intends to transfer personal data to a recipient in a third country or international organisation and the existence or absence of an adequacy decision by the Commission, or in the case of transfers referred to in Article 46 or 47, or the second subparagraph of Article 49(1), reference to the appropriate or suitable safeguards and the means to obtain a copy of them or where they have been made available.

2.   In addition to the information referred to in paragraph 1, the controller shall provide the data subject with the following information necessary to ensure fair and transparent processing in respect of the data subject:

(a) the period for which the personal data will be stored, or if that is not possible, the criteria used to determine that period;

(b) where the processing is based on point (f) of Article 6(1), the legitimate interests pursued by the controller or by a third party;

(c) the existence of the right to request from the controller access to and rectification or erasure of personal data or restriction of processing concerning the data subject and to object to processing as well as the right to data portability;

(d) where processing is based on point (a) of Article 6(1) or point (a) of Article 9(2), the existence of the right to withdraw consent at any time, without affecting the lawfulness of processing based on consent before its withdrawal;

(e) the right to lodge a complaint with a supervisory authority;

(f) from which source the personal data originate, and if applicable, whether it came from publicly accessible sources;

(g) the existence of automated decision-making, including profiling, referred to in Article 22(1) and (4) and, at least in those cases, meaningful information about the logic involved, as well as the significance and the envisaged consequences of such processing for the data subject.

3.   The controller shall provide the information referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2:

(a) within a reasonable period after obtaining the personal data, but at the latest within one month, having regard to the specific circumstances in which the personal data are processed;

(b) if the personal data are to be used for communication with the data subject, at the latest at the time of the first communication to that data subject; or

(c) if a disclosure to another recipient is envisaged, at the latest when the personal data are first disclosed.

4.   Where the controller intends to further process the personal data for a purpose other than that for which the personal data were obtained, the controller shall provide the data subject prior to that further processing with information on that other purpose and with any relevant further information as referred to in paragraph 2.

5.   Paragraphs 1 to 4 shall not apply where and insofar as:

(a) the data subject already has the information;

(b) the provision of such information proves impossible or would involve a disproportionate effort, in particular for processing for archiving purposes in the public interest, scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposes, subject to the conditions and safeguards referred to in Article 89(1) or in so far as the obligation referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article is likely to render impossible or seriously impair the achievement of the objectives of that processing. In such cases the controller shall take appropriate measures to protect the data subject's rights and freedoms and legitimate interests, including making the information publicly available;

(c) obtaining or disclosure is expressly laid down by Union or Member State law to which the controller is subject and which provides appropriate measures to protect the data subject's legitimate interests; or

(d) where the personal data must remain confidential subject to an obligation of professional secrecy regulated by Union or Member State law, including a statutory obligation of secrecy.

1st proposal close

Art. 14

1.           Where personal data relating to a data subject are collected, the controller shall provide the data subject with at least the following information:

(a)     the identity and the contact details of the controller and, if any, of the controller's representative and of the data protection officer;

(b)     the purposes of the processing for which the personal data are intended, including the contract terms and general conditions where the processing is based on point (b) of Article 6(1) and the legitimate interests pursued by the controller where the processing is based on point (f) of Article 6(1);

(c)     the period for which the personal data will be stored;

(d)     the existence of the right to request from the controller access to and rectification or erasure of the personal data concerning the data subject or to object to the processing of such personal data;

(e)     the right to lodge a complaint to the supervisory authority and the contact details of the supervisory authority;

(f)      the recipients or categories of recipients of the personal data;

(g)     where applicable, that the controller intends to transfer to a third country or international organisation and on the level of protection afforded by that third country or international organisation by reference to an adequacy decision by the Commission;

(h)     any further information necessary to guarantee fair processing in respect of the data subject, having regard to the specific circumstances in which the personal data are collected.

2.           Where the personal data are collected from the data subject, the controller shall inform the data subject, in addition to the information referred to in paragraph 1, whether the provision of personal data is obligatory or voluntary, as well as the possible consequences of failure to provide such data.

3.           Where the personal data are not collected from the data subject, the controller shall inform the data subject, in addition to the information referred to in paragraph 1, from which source the personal data originate.

4.           The controller shall provide the information referred to in paragraphs 1, 2 and 3:

(a)     at the time when the personal data are obtained from the data subject; or

(b)     where the personal data are not collected from the data subject, at the time of the recording or within a reasonable period after the collection, having regard to the specific circumstances in which the data are collected or otherwise processed, or, if a disclosure to another recipient is envisaged, and at the latest when the data are first disclosed.

5.           Paragraphs 1 to 4 shall not apply, where:

(a)     the data subject has already the information referred to in paragraphs 1, 2 and 3; or

(b)     the data are not collected from the data subject and the provision of such information proves impossible or would involve a disproportionate effort; or

(c)     the data are not collected from the data subject and recording or disclosure is expressly laid down by law; or

(d)     the data are not collected from the data subject and the provision of such information will impair the rights and freedoms of others, as defined in Union law or Member State law in accordance with Article 21.

6.           In the case referred to in point (b) of paragraph 5, the controller shall provide appropriate measures to protect the data subject's legitimate interests.

7.           The Commission shall be empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 86 for the purpose of further specifying the criteria for categories of recipients referred to in point (f) of paragraph 1, the requirements for the notice of potential access referred to in point (g) of paragraph 1, the criteria for the further information necessary referred to in point (h) of paragraph 1 for specific sectors and situations, and the conditions and appropriate safeguards for the exceptions laid down in point (b) of paragraph 5. In doing so, the Commission shall take the appropriate measures for micro, small and medium-sized-enterprises.

8.           The Commission may lay down standard forms for providing the information referred to in paragraphs 1 to 3, taking into account the specific characteristics and needs of various sectors and data processing situations where necessary. Those implementing acts shall be adopted in accordance with the examination procedure referred to in Article 87(2).

2nd proposal close

Art. 14a

1. Where personal data have not been obtained from the data subject, the controller shall provide the data subject with the following information :

(a) the identity and the contact details of the controller and, if any, of the controller's representative; the controller shall also include the contact details of the data protection officer, if any;

(b) the purposes of the processing for which the personal data are intended as well as the legal basis of the processing.

2. In addition to the information referred to in paragraph 1, the controller shall provide the data subject with such further information that is necessary to ensure fair and transparent processing in respect of the data subject, having regard to the specific circumstances and context in which the personal data are processed (...):

(a) the categories of personal data concerned ;

(b) (...)

(c) where the processing is based on point (f) of Article 6(1), the legitimate interests pursued by the controller or by a third party;

(d) the recipients or categories of recipients of the personal data;

(da) where applicable, that the controller intends to transfer personal data to a recipient in a third country or international organisation;

(e) the existence of the right to request from the controller access to and rectification or erasure of the personal data or restriction of processing of personal data concerning the data subject and to object to the processing of such personal data as well as the right to data portability (...);

(ea) where the processing is based on point (a) of Article 6(1) or point (a) of Article 9(2), the existence of the right to withdraw consent at any time, without affecting the lawfulness of processing based on consent before its withdrawal;

(f) the right to lodge a complaint to a supervisory authority (...);

(g) from which source the personal data originate, unless the data originate from publicly accessible sources;

(h) the existence of automated decision making including profiling referred to in Article 20(1) and (3) and information concerning the logic involved, as well as the significance and the envisaged consequences of such processing for the data subject.

3. The controller shall provide the information referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2:

(a) within a reasonable period after obtaining the data, but at the latest within one month, having regard to the specific circumstances in which the data are processed, or

(b) if a disclosure to another recipient is envisaged, at the latest when the data are first disclosed.

3a. Where the controller intends to further process the data (...) for a purpose other than the one for which the data were obtained, the controller shall provide the data subject prior to that further processing with information on that other purpose and with any relevant further information as referred to in paragraph 2.

4. Paragraphs 1 to 3a shall not apply where and insofar as :

(a) the data subject already has the information; or

(b) the provision of such information (...) proves impossible or would involve a disproportionate effort ; in such cases the controller shall take appropriate measures to protect the data subject's rights and freedoms and legitimate interests; or

(c) obtaining or disclosure is expressly laid down by Union or Member State law to which the controller is subject, which provides appropriate measures to protect the data subject's legitimate interests ; or

(d) (...);

(e) where the data must remain confidential in accordance with Union or Member State law (...).

5. (...)

6. (...)

Directive close

Art. 11

Information where the data have not been obtained from the data subject

1. Where the data have not been obtained from the data subject, Member States shall provide that the controller or his representative must at the time of undertaking the recording of personal data or if a disclosure to a third party is envisaged, no later than the time when the data are first disclosed provide the data subject with at least the following information, except where he already has it:

(a) the identity of the controller and of his representative, if any;

(b) the purposes of the processing;

(c) any further information such as

- the categories of data concerned,

- the recipients or categories of recipients,

- the existence of the right of access to and the right to rectify the data concerning him

in so far as such further information is necessary, having regard to the specific circumstances in which the data are processed, to guarantee fair processing in respect of the data subject.

2. Paragraph 1 shall not apply where, in particular for processing for statistical purposes or for the purposes of historical or scientific research, the provision of such information proves impossible or would involve a disproportionate effort or if recording or disclosure is expressly laid down by law. In these cases Member States shall provide appropriate safeguards.

Processing for archiving purposes in the public interest, scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposes

§ 7 DSG

(1) For archiving purposes in the public interest, scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposes whose goal is not to obtain results in a form relating to specific data subjects, the controller may process all personal data that

  1. are publicly accessible
  2. the controller has lawfully collected for other research projects or other purposes, or
  3. are pseudonymised personal data for the controller, and the controller cannot establish the identity of the data subject by legal means.

(2) In the case of processing for archiving purposes in the public interest, scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposes that do not fall under para. 1, personal data may be processed only

  1. pursuant to specific legal provisions,
  2. with the consent of the data subject, or
  3. with a permit of the Data Protection Authority pursuant to para. 3.

(3) A permit of the Data Protection Authority for the processing of personal data for archiving purposes in the public interest, scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposes shall be granted at the request of the controller ordering the research project, if

  1. the consent of the data subject is impossible to obtain because the data subject cannot be reached or the effort would otherwise be unreasonable,
  2. there is a public interest in the processing for which a permit is sought, and
  3. the professional aptitude of the controller has been satisfactorily demonstrated.

If special categories of personal data (Article 9 of the General Data Protection Regulation) are to be collected, an important public interest in the research project must exist; furthermore, it must be ensured that the personal data are processed at the premises of the controller ordering the research project only by persons who are subject to a statutory obligation of confidentiality regarding the subject matter of the research project or whose reliability in this respect is credible. The Data Protection Authority shall issue the permit subject to terms and conditions, insofar as this is necessary to safeguard the data subjects’ interests which deserve protection.

(4) A request according to para. 3 must, however, be accompanied by a statement signed by the person authorised to exercise rights in respect of the data files from which the personal data are to be collected, stating that this person is making the data files available for the research project. Instead of this statement, a writ of enforcement (§ 367 para. 1 of the Enforcement Code, Imperial Law Gazette No 79/1896) replacing this statement may be submitted.

(5) Even in cases where the processing of personal data for scientific research purposes or statistical purposes is permitted in a form which allows the identification of data subjects, the data shall be coded without delay so that the data subjects are no longer identifiable if specific phases of scientific or statistical work can be performed with personal data pursuant to para. 1 subpara. 3. Unless otherwise expressly provided for by law, data in a form which allows the identification of data subjects shall be rendered unidentifiable as soon as it is no longer necessary for scientific or statistical work to keep them identifiable.

(6) Legal restrictions on the right to use personal data for other reasons, in particular for copyright reasons, shall not be affected.


Providing addresses to inform and interview data subjects

§ 8 DSG

(1) Unless otherwise expressly provided for by law, providing address data of a certain group of data subjects in order to inform or interview them shall require the consent of the data subjects.

(2) If, however, an infringement of the data subject’s interests in confidentiality is unlikely, considering the selection criteria for the group of data subjects and the subject of the information or interview, no consent shall be required

  1. if data from the same controller are processed, or
  2. in the case of an intended transfer of address data to third parties, if (a) there is also a public interest in the information or interview, or (b) none of the data subjects, after having received appropriate information on the reason and content of the transfer, has objected to the transfer within a reasonable period.

(3) If the requirements of para. 2 are not met and if obtaining the consent of the data subjects pursuant to para. 1 would require a disproportionate effort, the transfer of the address data shall be permissible with a permit of the Data Protection Authority pursuant to para. 4 if the data are to be transferred to third parties

  1. for the purpose of information or an interview due to an important interest of the data subject,
  2. due to an important public interest in the information or interview, or
  3. for an interview of the data subjects for scientific or statistical purposes.

(4) At the request of a controller processing address data, the Data Protection Authority shall grant the permit for their transfer if the controller has satisfactorily demonstrated that the requirements stipulated in para. 3 have been met and no overriding interests in confidentiality which deserve protection on the part of the data subjects represent an obstacle to the transfer. The Data Protection Authority shall issue the permit subject to terms and conditions, insofar as this is necessary to safeguard interests of the data subjects which deserve protection.

(5) The transferred address data shall only be processed for the permitted purpose and shall be erased as soon as they are no longer needed for information or interviews.

(6) If it is lawful pursuant to the aforementioned provisions to transfer the names and addresses of persons belonging to a certain group of data subjects, the processing required for selecting the address data to be transferred shall also be permitted.

Old law close

In force until May 25, 2018:


The Controller’s Duty to Provide Information

§ 24 DSG 2000

[...]

(3) Where data have not been collected by asking the data subject, but through transmission from another application purpose of the same controller or from a data application of another controller, the information according to para. 1 may be omitted

1. if the use of data is provided for by law or an ordinance or

2. if it is impossible to provide the information because the data subjects cannot be reached or

3. if, considering the improbability of infringements of the data subjects’ rights and the expense involved in reaching the data subjects, an unreasonable effort would be required. In particular, this applies if data are collected for purposes of scientific research or statistics pursuant to § 46 or address data pursuant to § 47 and the requirement to inform the data subject is not explicitly stipulated. The Federal Chancellor may determine further cases by ordinance in which the duty to give information does not apply.

(4) There shall be no duty to provide information according to para 1 regarding such data applications that are not subject to notification pursuant to § 17 para. 2 and 3.

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