Article 23
Restrictions

Official
Texts
Guidelines
& Caselaw
Review of
EU Regulation
Review of
Nat. Regulation
Show the recitals of the Regulation related to article 23 keyboard_arrow_down Hide the recitals of the Regulation related to article 23 keyboard_arrow_up

(8) Where this Regulation provides for specifications or restrictions of its rules by Member State law, Member States may, as far as necessary for coherence and for making the national provisions comprehensible to the persons to whom they apply, incorporate elements of this Regulation into their national law.

(73) Restrictions concerning specific principles and the rights of information, access to and rectification or erasure of personal data, the right to data portability, the right to object, decisions based on profiling, as well as the communication of a personal data breach to a data subject and certain related obligations of the controllers may be imposed by Union or Member State law, as far as necessary and proportionate in a democratic society to safeguard public security, including the protection of human life especially in response to natural or manmade disasters, the prevention, investigation and prosecution of criminal offences or the execution of criminal penalties, including the safeguarding against and the prevention of threats to public security, or of breaches of ethics for regulated professions, other important objectives of general public interest of the Union or of a Member State, in particular an important economic or financial interest of the Union or of a Member State, the keeping of public registers kept for reasons of general public interest, further processing of archived personal data to provide specific information related to the political behaviour under former totalitarian state regimes or the protection of the data subject or the rights and freedoms of others, including social protection, public health and humanitarian purposes. Those restrictions should be in accordance with the requirements set out in the Charter and in the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.

Show the recitals of the Directive related to article 23 keyboard_arrow_down Hide the recitals of the Directive related to article 23 keyboard_arrow_up

(43) Whereas restrictions on the rights of access and information and on certain obligations of the controller may similarly be imposed by Member States in so far as they are necessary to safeguard, for example, national security, defence, public safety, or important economic or financial interests of a Member State or the Union, as well as criminal investigations and prosecutions and action in respect of breaches of ethics in the regulated professions; whereas the list of exceptions and limitations should include the tasks of monitoring, inspection or regulation necessary in the three last-mentioned areas concerning public security, economic or financial interests and crime prevention; whereas the listing of tasks in these three areas does not affect the legitimacy of exceptions or restrictions for reasons of State security or defence;

(44) Whereas Member States may also be led, by virtue of the provisions of Community law, to derogate from the provisions of this Directive concerning the right of access, the obligation to inform individuals, and the quality of data, in order to secure certain of the purposes referred to above;

The GDPR

Article 23 of the Regulation being directly inspired by Article 13 of the Directive states that the Member States may maintain or introduce statutory restrictions to the data subject rights under Articles 12 to 22 and Article 34 relating to the notification to the data subject about a breach of personal data and the principles set out in Article 5, provided that those restrictions comply with the essence of the fundamental rights and freedoms and is a necessary and proportionate measure in a democratic society to safeguard certain interests that are listed exhaustively.

Compared to the Directive, there is an extension of these interests including protection against threats to public safety and the prevention of these, important objectives of public interests of the Union or a Member State including an economic or financial interest of the Union or of a Member State, including monetary, budgetary and fiscal areas, public health and social security, or even the protection of the independence of justice and of judicial proceedings or to enable the execution of applications of civil law.

Article 23 in fine provides however that the legislative restrictions introduced by the Member States should contain many specific provisions relating to purposes, categories of processing and personal data, the extent of the introduced restrictions, or also to the risks to the rights and freedoms of individuals and the right of the data subject to be informed about such restrictions.

The Directive

Under the Directive (Art. 13), the Member States were already allowed to limit the scope of the rights and obligations provided for in Article 6 on the quality of the data; in Articles 10 and 11 relating to the information to be provided to the data subject; Article 12 on the right to object and article 21 on the publicizing of processing. 

However such limitations are measures necessary for the implementation of exhaustively listed interests, for example, for ensuring the national security, defence, public security or prevention, investigation, detection and prosecution of criminal offences or of breaches of ethics in the case of the regulated professions.

Potential issues

The possibilities of restrictions being extended, the room for maneuvering of the states increases, resulting in a risk of divergence of the protection systems, at the expense of the goal of harmonization of the new regulations. It is true that in return, the states will have to adapt them by more guarantees for the people, which can then be controlled by the Court of Justice.

CJEU caselaw

C-473/12 (7 november 2013)

Article 13(1) of Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data must be interpreted as meaning that Member States have no obligation, but have the option, to transpose into their national law one or more of the exceptions which it lays down to the obligation to inform data subjects of the processing of their personal data.

The activity of a private detective acting for a professional body in order to investigate breaches of ethics of a regulated profession, in this case that of estate agent, is covered by the exception in Article 13(1)(d) of Directive 95/46.

Judgment of the Court

C-201/14 (1 october 2015)

Articles 10, 11 and 13 of Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995, on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, must be interpreted as precluding national measures, such as those at issue in the main proceedings, which allow a public administrative body of a Member State to transfer personal data to another public administrative body and their subsequent processing, without the data subjects having been informed of that transfer or processing.

Opinion of Advocate general

Judgment of the Court

Regulation
1e 2e

Art. 23

1.   Union or Member State law to which the data controller or processor is subject may restrict by way of a legislative measure the scope of the obligations and rights provided for in Articles 12 to 22 and Article 34, as well as Article 5 in so far as its provisions correspond to the rights and obligations provided for in Articles 12 to 22, when such a restriction respects the essence of the fundamental rights and freedoms and is a necessary and proportionate measure in a democratic society to safeguard:

(a) national security;

(b) defence;

(c) public security;

(d) the prevention, investigation, detection or prosecution of criminal offences or the execution of criminal penalties, including the safeguarding against and the prevention of threats to public security;

(e) other important objectives of general public interest of the Union or of a Member State, in particular an important economic or financial interest of the Union or of a Member State, including monetary, budgetary and taxation a matters, public health and social security;

(f) the protection of judicial independence and judicial proceedings;

(g) the prevention, investigation, detection and prosecution of breaches of ethics for regulated professions;

(h) a monitoring, inspection or regulatory function connected, even occasionally, to the exercise of official authority in the cases referred to in points (a) to (e) and (g);

(i) the protection of the data subject or the rights and freedoms of others;

(j) the enforcement of civil law claims.

2.   In particular, any legislative measure referred to in paragraph 1 shall contain specific provisions at least, where relevant, as to:

(a) the purposes of the processing or categories of processing;

(b) the categories of personal data;

(c) the scope of the restrictions introduced;

(d) the safeguards to prevent abuse or unlawful access or transfer;

(e) the specification of the controller or categories of controllers;

(f) the storage periods and the applicable safeguards taking into account the nature, scope and purposes of the processing or categories of processing;

(g) the risks to the rights and freedoms of data subjects; and

(h) the right of data subjects to be informed about the restriction, unless that may be prejudicial to the purpose of the restriction

1st proposal close

Art. 21

1.           Union or Member State law may restrict by way of a legislative measure the scope of the obligations and rights provided for in points (a) to (e) of Article 5 and Articles 11 to 20 and Article 32, when such a restriction constitutes a necessary and proportionate measure in a democratic society to safeguard:

(a)     public security;

(b)     the prevention, investigation, detection and prosecution of criminal offences;

(c)     other public interests of the Union or of a Member State, in particular an important economic or financial interest of the Union or of a Member State, including monetary, budgetary and taxation matters and the protection of market stability and integrity;

(d)     the prevention, investigation, detection and prosecution of breaches of ethics for regulated professions;

(e)     a monitoring, inspection or regulatory function connected, even occasionally, with the exercise of official authority in cases referred to in (a), (b), (c) and (d);

(f)      the protection of the data subject or the rights and freedoms of others.

2nd proposal close

Art. 21

1.  Union or Member State law to which the data controller or processor is subject may restrict by way of a legislative measure the scope of the obligations and rights provided for in (...) Articles 12 to 20 and Article 32,  as well as Article 5 in so far as its provisions correspond to the rights and obligations provided for in Articles 12 to 20, when such a restriction constitutes a necessary and proportionate measure in a democratic society to safeguard:

(aa) national security;

(ab) defence;

(a) public security;

(b) the prevention, investigation, detection or prosecution of criminal offences or the execution of criminal penalties or the safeguarding against and the prevention of threats to public security;

(c) other important objectives of general public interests of the Union or of a Member State, in particular an important economic or financial interest of the Union or of a Member State, including, monetary, budgetary and taxation matters, public health and social security,the protection of market stability and integrity;

(ca) the protection of judicial independence and judicial proceedings ;

(d) the prevention, investigation, detection and prosecution of breaches of ethics for regulated professions;

(e) a monitoring, inspection or regulatory function connected, even occasionally, with the exercise of official authority in cases referred to in (aa), (ab), (a), (b), (c) and (d);

(f) the protection of the data subject or the rights and freedoms of others;

(g) the enforcement of civil law claims

2. Any legislative measure referred to in paragraph 1 shall contain specific provisions at least, where relevant, as to the purposes of the processing or categories of processing, the categories of personal data, the scope of the restrictions introduced, the specification of the controller or categories of controllers, the storage periods and the applicable safeguards taking into account the nature, scope and purposes of the processing or categories of processing and the risks for the rights and freedoms of data subjects

.

 

Directive close

Art. 13

1. Member States may adopt legislative measures to restrict the scope of the obligations and rights provided for in Articles 6 (1), 10, 11 (1), 12 and 21 when such a restriction constitutes a necessary measures to safeguard:

(a) national security;

(b) defence;

(c) public security;

(d) the prevention, investigation, detection and prosecution of criminal offences, or of breaches of ethics for regulated professions;

(e) an important economic or financial interest of a Member State or of the European Union, including monetary, budgetary and taxation matters;

(f) a monitoring, inspection or regulatory function connected, even occasionally, with the exercise of official authority in cases referred to in (c), (d) and (e);

(g) the protection of the data subject or of the rights and freedoms of others.

2. Subject to adequate legal safeguards, in particular that the data are not used for taking measures or decisions regarding any particular individual, Member States may, where there is clearly no risk of breaching the privacy of the data subject, restrict by a legislative measure the rights provided for in Article 12 when data are processed solely for purposes of scientific research or are kept in personal form for a period which does not exceed the period necessary for the sole purpose of creating statistics.

Section 41 GDPR Implementation Law. Exceptions to data subject’s rights and controller’s obligations

1. The controller may refrain from applying the rights and obligations referred to in Articles 12 to 21 and 34 of the Regulation in so far as this is necessary and proportionate to safeguard:
a. national security;
b. defence;
c. public security;
d. the prevention, investigation, detection or prosecution of criminal offences or the execution of criminal penalties, including safeguarding against and preventing threats to public security;
e. other important objectives of general public interest of the European Union or of the Netherlands, in particular an important economic or financial interest of the European Union or of the Netherlands, including monetary, budgetary and taxation matters, public health and social security;
f. the protection of judicial independence and judicial proceedings;
g. the prevention, investigation, detection and prosecution of breaches ofethics for regulated professions;
h. a monitoring, inspection or regulatory function connected, even occasionally, to the exercise of official authority in the cases referred to in a, b, c, d, e and g;
i. the protection of the data subject or the rights and freedoms of others; or
j. the enforcement of civil law claims.

2. In applying subsection 1, the controller will in any case take into account, in so far as applicable:
a. the purposes of the processing or the categories of processing;
b. the categories of personal data;
c. the scope of the restrictions introduced;
d. the safeguards to prevent abuse or unlawful access or transfer;
e. the specification of the controller or categories of controllers;
f. the storage periods and the applicable safeguards taking into account the nature, scope and purposes of the processing or categories of processing;
g. the risks to the rights and freedoms of data subjects; and
h. the right of data subjects to be informed about any restriction, unless that may be prejudicial to the purpose of such restriction.


Section 42 GDPR Implementation Law. Exemption from the obligation to notify data subject about
data breaches


Article 34 does not apply to financial enterprises within the meaning of the Financial Supervision Act.


Section 47 GDPR Implementation Law. Exemptions to data subject’s rights for public registers

1. Articles 15, 16, 18 and 19 of the Regulation do not apply to public registers established by law if a special procedure to correct, add, remove or restrict data is provided by or pursuant to such legislation.
2. Article 21 of the Regulation does not apply to public registers which have been established by law.

close